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    你知道如何預防橡套電纜銅導體氧化嗎?

    來源:昆明泰昆電纜制造有限公司 發布時間:2019-03-04 返回

      預防橡套電纜銅導體氧化的方法。通用橡套電纜是以5類銅導體作為導電線芯,在其生產過程中,常常發現銅導體氧化變色,這嚴重地影響了產品的質量,成為了國內眾多電纜生產廠家的一個老大難技術問題。


      銅屬于過渡金屬,易被空氣中的氧氣在酸性條件下氧化成黑色的CuO。當銅導體表面有水膜或水珠時,由于大氣中含有大量塵埃,如煙霧、煤炭、汽車尾氣、氯化物及其他酸、堿、鹽顆粒粉塵等, 這些有害物質溶解于水膜或水珠中,即可形成電解液,從而加劇銅導體的氧化變色。輕者影響產品外觀品質和產品質量,重者則影響銅導體的使用,造成生產成本的浪費。所以,銅導體一定要妥善保管,注意防氧化變色。


      電纜用金屬銅從原理上講主要有物理方法阻隔銅與潮濕空氣接觸、陰極保護氧化還原法阻止銅導體氧化、化學方法在銅導體表面生成鈍化膜阻止氧化,抑或在導體表面噴涂特殊液體予以保護。以通用橡套電纜的生產為例,每道工序防氧化控制的主要方法。

    橡套電纜

      1、銅桿進廠前運輸、檢測及儲存

      我國大多數電纜企業用銅為外購,應選擇質優金屬銅桿,規范供應商運輸、交貨流程與制度,銅桿進廠檢驗依照GB/T 3048.2或電纜企業企標執行。銅桿的儲存可用塑料布或塑料薄膜覆蓋銅桿,即最簡單的物理阻隔法阻止銅桿與潮濕空氣的接觸。車間領用銅桿時一定要逐個銅桿卷進行肉眼檢查是否有發黑現象,從生產源頭加以控制。


      2、銅桿拉絲工序的控制0.4mm單絲的拉制一般采用連續退火的銅大拉機和中拉機,需經過放線、拉絲與退火、冷卻、烘干、收線等工序。首先,應選取合適的模具,切不可過小,否則會強制使金屬銅的晶格變異,加劇金屬溫度的急劇上升。其次,開機前檢查乳化液的酸堿度,確保為堿性溶液,同時拉絲油中應添加抗氧化劑,在銅導體表面形成鈍化膜,防止氧化;放線時,保持放線張力穩定、均勻,不可過度顫動;拉絲過程中操作者應保證恰當水位高度,保證退火程度均勻,避免退火不足或退火過度;收線時,銅導體表面不應有殘余液體,可在收線前方處放置一塊干燥的毛氈(經常更換),以保證單絲的干燥。最后,在拉絲下盤后用透明塑料薄膜密封,存放于干燥環境之中,待流轉,否則會由于導體表面溫度較高而易與潮濕的空氣發生氧化的風險。


      3、銅絲絞合(束絞)與絕緣橡皮、護套橡皮擠出工序

      以銅絲絞合為例,導體在絞合過程中,經過各道壓模使得金屬銅晶格改變結構,在強外力作用下,過模后銅導體溫度較過模前有較大提高,因此銅導體外層易氧化。

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